Climate

Climate change is considered to be one of the greatest challenges facing mankind. It is believed to be caused by greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. Climate change can be mitigated by ecosystems, such as forests, water bodies and bogs that absorb carbon dioxide emitted into the air.

Climate statistics provide an overview of greenhouse gas emissions in Estonia. The data help us see what precisely causes greenhouse gas emissions. 

Climate statistics provide information on

  • greenhouse gas emissions per GDP and per capita;
  • greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector;
  • emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide;
  • how much carbon dioxide is bound by ecosystems.

Data on greenhouse gas emissions help to predict climate change and implement national adaptation measures.

Greenhouse gas emissions 10.3 CO₂ equivalent tonnes
8.4%
2022
Greenhouse gas emissions per euro of GDP 0.5 kg
10.2%
2022
Net emissions of greenhouse gases (including LULUCF, i.e. the land use, land use change and forestry sector) 14.3 million CO₂-equivalent tonnes
6.7%
2022
Greenhouse gas emissions from transport sector 2,644.6 million CO₂-equivalent tonnes
4.3%
2022
Carbon dioxide emissions 11.8 million tonnes
2022
Removal of carbon dioxide by ecosystems 0.00 million euros
2022
Methane emissions 40.1 thousand tonnes
2022
Nitrous oxide emissions 3.3 thousand tonnes
2022
Greenhouse gas emissions per euro of GDP | 2012–2022
Total emission of greenhouse gases per capita | 2014–2022
Emissions of CO₂ (excl. emissions from biomass) | 2013 – 2021
Unit: thousand tonnes
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 468 316 210 181 198 212 198 119 146
Manufacturing 1,999 2,429 2,313 1,674 1,890 2,031 2,305 1,669 1,374
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 14,447 13,367 10,342 12,957 13,930 12,816 7,045 4,765 6,288
Land transport and transport via pipelines 1,666 1,785 1,762 1,528 1,530 1,339 1,098 953 1,060
Water transport 1,074 876 806 671 815 713 499 208 285
Air transport 96 101 140 39 64 35 34 11 17
Households total 1,292 1,319 1,615 1,671 1,733 1,821 1,772 1,558 1,647

CO₂ from biomass | 2013 – 2021
Unit: thousand tonnes
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Manufacturing 490 490 587 635 602 659 737 757 815
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 1,232 1,239 1,344 1,472 2,013 2,033 2,432 2,323 2,732
Households total 2,120 2,138 2,120 2,242 2,094 2,457 2,047 2,558 2,182

Emissions of greenhouse gases | 2013 – 2021
Unit: CO₂-equivalent tonnes
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 4,433 4,641 5,047 6,217 4,656 5,642 7,055 5,734 6,359
Manufacturing 39,764 44,307 43,957 47,711 50,468 51,902 51,064 32,040 35,189
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 137 140 151 176 121 129 131 129 144
Households total 30,182 32,037 33,858 34,364 35,810 36,104 32,978 27,176 28,497

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