Forest

Estonia is one of the most forested countries in the world. Forests cover nearly half of the mainland in Estonia. The forests here stand out with an abundance of species, preserved thanks to a large proportion of naturally renewed forests and few alien tree species. Forest areas are important in the carbon cycle, binding carbon from the atmosphere in woody plants and forest soil.

Wood is an increasingly important source of renewable energy, valued raw material and building material. Wood is used to make doors, windows, houses and furniture, which are sold on the domestic market and exported to other countries. 

Forest statistics provide information about

  • the size of Estonia’s forest resources;
  • the annual increment of stands;
  • the area of forest land in Estonia;
  • the share of protected forest land;
  • the annual volume of felling.

Based on forest statistics, it is possible to assess how viable and productive are Estonian forests and how well the state ensures their renewal and preservation.

First pilot compilation of the European Forest Accounts with the aim to establish the methodology has been finalized in June 2023 regarding reference year 2019, results and overview can be seen in the report and tables. The work has been co-financed by Eurostat grant  for developing environmental accounts (101022852 — 2020-EE-ENVACC).

Gross felling based on national forest inventory (nfi) 12.08 million m³
21.07%
2022
Total area of clear felling based on NFI 32.6 thousand hectares
20.3%
2022
Carbon storage in wooden biomass on forest land 151.76 million tonnes
-1.58%
Area of forest land 2.33 million ha
0.40%
2023
Total growing stock of stands 453.68 million m³
-0.64%
2023
Increment of stand volume per year 7.3 m³/ha
-1.4%
2023
Territory covered by forest 51.5 %
2023
Share of strictly protected forests in total forest land area 18.1 %
2022
Relative error of felling outturn 18.9 %
2022
Forest resources based on national forest inventory | 2004–2023
Share of strictly protected forests in total forest land area | 2004–2022
Share of forest annual fellings in net annual increment | 2004–2016
Gross felling based on national forest inventory | 2003 – 2022
Unit: m³/ha
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Total felling 115 110 118 92 94 88 104 115 105 121 115 132 129 146 153 147 128 121 115 120
Regeneration felling 206 212 258 232 230 211 223 237 243 265 248 251 242 263 274 279 263 253 267 278
Maintenance felling 73 67 62 43 38 37 46 44 39 40 43 44 43 44 44 47 42 43 36 39
Other felling 19 25 64 43 40 12 22 31 35 54 41 50 29 37 41 32 30 20 23 31

Area of forests, area of stands | 2004 – 2023
Unit: thousand ha
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Area of forest and other wooded land 2,282 2,271 2,269 2,265 2,230 2,217 2,222 2,235 2,250 2,268 2,295 2,311 2,314 2,331 2,331 2,333 2,326 2,326 2,325 2,334
Area of stands 2,119 2,107 2,114 2,117 2,083 2,071 2,081 2,091 2,102 2,116 2,136 2,147 2,143 2,158 2,149 2,142 2,121 2,118 2,111 2,122

Carbon storage in wooden biomass on forest land by dominant tree species | 1993 – 2022
Unit: thousand tons
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Pine 41,675 42,231 42,787 43,342 43,898 44,454 45,579 49,261 47,178 47,380 46,927 49,352 49,317 51,579 54,020 54,769 55,155 55,243 55,238 55,833 57,142 58,416 58,689 58,205 57,584 56,894 56,495 55,008 54,210 53,195
Spruce 25,235 25,571 25,908 26,244 26,581 26,917 26,451 28,825 28,861 28,500 28,541 28,914 28,553 28,330 27,715 27,634 27,084 27,744 28,376 28,734 29,398 30,823 31,046 31,924 32,475 32,219 31,830 31,302 30,014 29,034
Birch 35,707 36,183 36,660 37,136 37,612 38,088 38,193 39,764 40,104 40,129 40,463 40,464 40,625 39,868 39,653 39,589 40,993 42,138 44,339 45,181 45,754 45,144 45,613 45,247 45,488 44,873 45,019 44,260 43,675 43,373
Aspen 7,211 7,307 7,403 7,499 7,596 7,692 9,221 8,261 8,298 8,300 8,055 7,833 7,765 7,702 7,617 7,716 7,847 7,918 8,216 8,154 8,284 8,185 8,337 8,533 8,849 8,889 9,079 9,115 8,884 8,869
Common alder 3,281 3,325 3,368 3,412 3,456 3,500 3,164 3,575 3,755 3,484 3,757 3,875 3,821 3,663 3,911 4,048 4,152 4,172 4,474 4,662 4,740 4,670 4,958 5,055 5,190 5,055 5,066 5,012 4,947 4,920

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